Types Of Water Pollution
Water pollution can be classified based on the number of sources. Water pollution can come from a number of different sources.
If the resulting pollution is from a single source, such as an oil spill, then it is called point-source pollution. If the pollution is as a result of many sources, then it is called non point-source pollution.Water pollution can be classified based on the area affected by the pollution. Usually, most types of pollution affect the immediate area surrounding the source of water. However, the pollution may, sometimes, affect nature many miles away from the actual source, such as nuclear waste. This type of water pollution is called transboundary pollution.
The water pollution can be further classified based on the source of water that is getting polluted or contaminated. Likewise, there is surface water pollution, groundwater pollution, microbiological pollution and oxygen depletion.
Surface Water Pollution: Surface water is found on the exterior of the Earth's crust, oceans, rivers and lakes. Contamination of this water is called surface water pollution.
Groundwater Pollution: A major amount of Earth's water is found in soil or held underground rock structures known as aquifers. Water stored underground in aquifers is known as groundwater. And since ages, people have been using aquifers for the purpose of drinking water, and have accessed these by digging wells. Contamination of this water is called groundwater pollution. The major cause is the seepage of chemical, pesticides and artificial fertilizers from the soil into the groundwater.
Microbiological Pollution: This type of water pollution is caused by microorganisms. Waterborne microorganisms like bacteria, viruses and protozoa cause serious diseases like cholera and typhoid fever.
Oxygen Depletion Pollution: This pollution is caused due to the depleting of oxygen levels in the water. As oxygen levels in water are depleted, harmless aerobic microorganisms, that require oxygen to live, die and anaerobic microorganism, that do not require oxygen to thrive, prosper. Some anaerobic microorganisms like protozoa are harmful to people, environment and animals and consuming water infested with them can cause diseases like cholera and typhoid fever.
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